Course Code: ES-333
Course Title: Educational Evaluation
Assignment Number : B.ED
ES-333: EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION
Answer the following questions:
i) Establish relationship between Measurement, Assessment and Evaluation with examples. (250 words)
Solution: Assessment, measurement, evaluation and research are part of the processes of science and issues related to each topic often overlap. Assessment refers to the collection of data to better understand an issue, measurement is the process of quantifying assessment data, evaluation refers to the comparison of that data to a standard for the purpose of judging worth or quality, and research refers to the use of that data for the purpose of describing, predicting, and controlling as a means toward better understanding the phenomena under consideration. Measurement is done with respect to "variables" (phenomena that can take on more than one value or level). For example, the variable "gender" has the values or levels of male and female and data could be collected relative to this variable. Data on variables are normally collected by one or more of four methods: paper/pencil, systematic observation, participant observation, and clinical.
The collecting of data (assessment), quantifying those data (measurement) and developing understanding about the data (research) always raise issues of reliability and validity. Reliability attempts to answer concerns about the consistency of the information (data) collected, while validity focuses on accuracy or truth. The relationship between reliability and validity can be confusing because measurements (e.g., scores on tests, recorded statements about classroom behavior) can be reliable (consistent) without being valid (accurate or true). However, the reverse is not true: measurements cannot be valid without being reliable. The same statement applies to findings from research studies. Findings may be reliable (consistent across studies), but not valid (accurate or true statements about relationships among "variables"), but findings may not be valid if they are not reliable. At a miniumum, for a measurement to be reliable a consistent set of data must be produced each time it is used; for a research study to be reliable it should produce consistent results each time it is performed.
ii) Explain concept and types of validity with examples.(250 words)
Solution: Validity refers to the accuracy of an assessment -- whether or not it measures what it is supposed to measure. Even if a test is reliable, it may not provide a valid measure. Let’s imagine a bathroom scale that consistently tells you that you weigh 130 pounds. The reliability (consistency) of this scale is very good, but it is not accurate (valid) because you actually weigh 145 pounds (perhaps you re-set the scale in a weak moment)! Since teachers, parents, and school districts make decisions about students based on assessments (such as grades, promotions, and graduation), the validity inferred from the assessments is essential -- even more crucial than the reliability. Also, if a test is valid, it is almost always reliable.
There are three ways in which validity can be measured. In order to have confidence that a test is valid (and therefore the inferences we make based on the test scores are valid), all three kinds of validity evidence should be considered.
Type of Validity
The extent to which the content of the test matches the instructional objectives.
A semester or quarter exam that only includes content covered during the last six weeks is not a valid measure of the course's overall objectives -- it has very low content validity.
The extent to which scores on the test are in agreement with (concurrent validity) or predict (predictive validity) an external criterion.
If the end-of-year math tests in 4th grade correlate highly with the statewide math tests, they would have high concurrent validity.
The extent to which an assessment corresponds to other variables, as predicted by some rationale or theory.
If you can correctly hypothesize that ESOL students will perform differently on a reading test than English-speaking students (because of theory), the assessment may have construct validity.
So, does all this talk about validity and reliability mean you need to conduct statistical analyses on your classroom quizzes? No, it doesn't. (Although you may, on occasion, want to ask one of your peers to verify the content validity of your major assessments.) However, you should be aware of the basic tenets of validity and reliability as you construct your classroom assessments, and you should be able to help parents interpret scores for the standardized exams.
iii) Select units/topics in your teaching subject for construction of Achievement test Prepare blue print and 15 objective type test items 5 each to test knowledge,
understanding and Application. (1000 words)
Solution: Should be done by Students !!!